Most cases of glaucoma can be controlled with medication in the form of eyedrops or pills. These medications reduce the pressure inside the eye either by decreasing the amount of aqueous humor produced or by increasing the rate at which the fluid drains from the eye.
When the pressure inside the eye cannot be controlled by medication, surgery may be necessary. In laser surgery, a high-energy laser beam is aimed at the eye to help stretch the trabecular meshwork and make it easier for fluid to flow out of the eye. Sometimes patients who already have had laser surgery develop increased pressure inside the eye again. At that point, conventional surgery is often performed to create a new channel through which fluid can leave the eye. A valve may be surgically implanted in the eye to help control the pressure.