Blood type A, Blood type B, Blood Type AB, Blood Type O
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Circulatory System
Blood INTRODUCTION ROLE OF BLOOD COMPOSITION OF BLOOD Plasma Red Blood Cells Blood Type White Blood Cells Platelets and Clotting PRODUCTION AND ELIMINATION OF BLOOD CELLS Red Blood Cell Diseases White Blood Cell Diseases Coagulation Diseases BLOOD BANKS Blood Transfusion Blood Count Blood donation and registry Blood gas analysis Blood sugar tests Blood typing and crossmatching Blood urea nitrogen test Blood-viscosity reducing drugs Blood Culture Blood Clot in the Legs Causes Blood Clot in the Legs Symptoms Blood Clot in the Legs

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Digestive system Esophagus Gall bladder Large intestine Lips, cheeks and palate Salivary glands Serous membranes Small intestine Stomach Tunics
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Endocrine system Glandular Structure Gonads Hormones Pancreas Parathyroid Glands Pineal Gland Pituitary Gland Pituitary Hormones Thymus Thyroid Gland
Respiratory system



Blood Type: A, B, AB, and O


 Blood Type, in medicine, classification of red blood cells by the presence of specific substances on their surface. Typing of red blood cells is a prerequisite for blood transfusion. In the early part of the 20th century, physicians discovered that blood transfusions often failed because the blood type of the recipient was not compatible with that of the donor. In 1901 the Austrian pathologist Karl Landsteiner classified blood types and discovered that they were transmitted by Mendelian heredity.

 The four blood types are known as A, B, AB, and O. Blood type A contains red blood cells that have a substance A on their surface. This type of blood also contains an antibody directed against substance B, found on the red cells of persons with blood type B. Type B blood contains the reverse combination. Serum of blood type AB contains neither antibody, but red cells in this type of blood contain both A and B substances. In type O blood, neither substance is present on the red cells, but the individual is capable of forming antibodies directed against red cells containing substance A or B. If blood type A is transfused into a person with B type blood, anti-A antibodies in the recipient will destroy the transfused A red cells. Because O type blood has neither substance on its red cells, it can be given successfully to almost any person. Persons with blood type AB have no antibodies and can receive any of the four types of blood; thus blood types O and AB are called universal donors and universal recipients, respectively.

 Other hereditary blood-group systems have subsequently been discovered. The hereditary blood constituent called Rh factor is of great importance in obstetrics and blood transfusions because it creates reactions that can threaten the life of newborn infants. More than twenty additional blood types have been discovered. Their primary importance is in legal cases involving proof of paternity. See also Genetics.



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